Home

Pulse modulation شرح

ما هو Pulse Width Modulation - YouTub

Yang Yang, IE, CUHK ERG2310A: Principles of Communication Systems (2002-2003) 8 Chapter 7: Pulse Modulation Time-division multiplex (TDM) Time-division multiplexing is the method of combining several sampled signals in a definite time sequence. Commutator determines the synchronization and sequence of the channels (signals) to be sampled Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Definition: A modulation technique that allows variation in the position of the pulses according to the amplitude of the sampled modulating signal is known as Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). It is another type of PTM, where the amplitude and width of the pulses are kept constant and only the position of the pulses. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Definition: A modulation technique where the width of the pulses of the pulsed carrier wave is changed according to the modulating signal is known as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). It is also known as Pulse duration modulation (PDM). Basics of Pulse Width Modulation In pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), the information, signal is sampled at the sampling rate and the carrier pulse In pulse is discretely amplitude - modulated at the sampling frequency. For faithful transmission, the signal should It-119 The information is transferred to e sampled sufficiently. the pulse at the sampling frequency Next Topic -Pulse Code Modulation Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, CDs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications. The amplitude of the analog signal is sampled at uniform intervals and each sample is quantized to its neares

Pulse code modulation is a method that is used to convert an analogue signal into digital signal, so that modified analogue signal can be transmitted through the digital communication network. Pulse Code Modulation is in binary form, so there will be only two possible states high and low (0 and 1). The pulse code modulation process is done in three steps Sampling, quantization and coding referred to as modems (modulators/demodulators). Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) underlies the operation of a wide variety of modems. 12.1.1 The Transmitted Signal The basic idea in PAM for communication over a CT channel is to transmit a se­ quence of CT pulses of some pre-specified shape p(t), with the sequence of pulse Pulse Amplitude Modulation is a simple form of signal modulation. The signals transmitted are inspected at a very specific interval. Moreover, this correlated with the modulating signal as it is categorized to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the signal The remaining pulse is called clipped PPM. PWM PPM Pulse Position Modulation (PPM): 6. PAM, PWM and PPM at a glance: Analog Signal Amplitude Modulated Pulses Width Modulated Pulses Position Modulated Pulses. 7. * Analog signal is converted into digital signal by using a digital code. * Analog to digital converter employs two techniques: 1 Pulse Amplitude Modulation. Pulse amplitude modulation is a technique in which the amplitude of each pulse is controlled by the instantaneous amplitude of the modulation signal. It is a modulation system in which the signal is sampled at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the amplitude of the signal at the instant of sampling

Pulse Modulation - Definition, Types, Block Diagrams

Differential pulse-code modulation is a signal encoding process which adds functionalities based on the prediction of the samples of the signal. Adaptive differential pulse-code modulation is a technique in which the size of the quantization step is varied, to allow the further reduction of the required data bandwidth to a given signal-to-noise ratio Pulse-width modulation ( PWM ), or pulse-duration modulation ( PDM ), is a method of reducing the average power delivered by an electrical signal, by effectively chopping it up into discrete parts. The average value of voltage (and current) fed to the load is controlled by turning the switch between supply and load on and off at a fast rate The modulation is mainly done at the receiver's end. We use PAM for different purposes. It is a simple modulation technique. What is Pulse Amplitude Modulation? Definition: PAM is a type of pulse modulation technique in which the signal to be transmitted is sampled after certain intervals of time. The samples are then made proportional to the modulating signal's amplitude Pulse modulation is the cycle wherein signal is communicated by beats (i.e., spasmodic signs) with an uncommon procedure. The beat regulation is named simple heartbeat tweak and advanced heartbeat adjustment. The simple heartbeat adjustment is again delegated

Instead, pulse modulation involves using quantized pulses to modulate a carrier signal or using a pulse train as the carrier signal for digital data (e.g., PAM4 signaling for high-speed networking). The primary difference between these two sets of digital modulation techniques is the use of a truly digital signal vs. the use of pulses in modulation and transmission Pulse-position modulation (PPM) is a signal modulation used for both analog and digital signal transmissions. This method is widely used for optical communication systems such as optic fiber and IR remote controls, where efficiency is required and little or no external interference occurs. How Pulse Position Modulation work The Pulse Time Modulation (PTM) can further be classified into two types of modulation-. #Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)/Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM) #Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is a digital pulse modulation technique. You can see the classification of pulse modulation, in the image given below Pulse code modulation is an extension of Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM), in which a sampled signal consists of a train of pulses where each pulse corresponds to the amplitude of the signal at the corresponding sampling time (the signal is modulated in amplitude). Each analogue sample value is quantised into a discrete value for representation as a digital code word

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) - YouTube

Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM), is a form of signal modulation where the message information is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. It is an analog pulse modulation scheme in which the amplitudes of a train of carrier pulses are varied according to the sample value of the message signal Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a nifty current control technique that enables you to control the speed of motors, heat output of heaters, and much more in an energy-efficient (and usually quieter) manner. Existing applications for PWM include, but are not limited to: Variable speed fan controllers. VRF HVAC compressor drives The M-PAM Modulator Baseband block modulates using M-ary pulse amplitude modulation. The output is a baseband representation of the modulated signal. The M-ary number parameter, M, is the number of points in the signal constellation. It must be an even integer

Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a fancy term for describing a type of digital signal. Pulse width modulation is used in a variety of applications including sophisticated control circuitry. A common way we use them here at SparkFun is to control dimming of RGB LEDs or to control the direction of a servo. We can accomplish a range of results in. Pulse Modulation Professor Deepa Kundur (University of Toronto)Pulse Modulation22 / 61 5.2 Pulse Modulation Ithe variation of aregularly spacedconstant amplitudepulse stream to superimpose information contained in a message signal. t T T s Note: T < T s A IThree types: 1.pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) 2.pulse duration modulation (PDM PWM (short for Pulse Width Modulation) is a modulation technique, used to step down the voltage level (average power) of electrical signals (both AC & DC) by varying their width (ON duration) using fast-switching. If a voltage source is

Analog Communication - Pulse Modulation - Tutorialspoin

  1. Hello, readers welcome to the new tutorial. In this post, we will have a detailed look at Introduction to Pulse-Width Modulation Inverters. PWM or pulse width inverter is the new type of inverters that is the replacement of older types of inverters.Generally, it employed in different types of power electronics circuitry
  2. Pulse modulation methods are used to transfer a narrowband analog signal, such as a phone call, over a pulse stream. Some schemes use a digital signal for transmission, making them essentially an analog-to-digital conversion. Three main variants of Pulse Modulation are: 1. Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)
  3. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is a digital display of an analogue signal that samples the amplitude of an analogue signal at regular intervals. The sampled analogue data is modified and then represented by binary data. PCM requires an exact clock. The number of samples per second, which ranges from 8,000 to 192,000, is typically several times the.
  4. تضمين عرض النبضة (بالإنجليزية: Pulse Width Modulation اختصاراً PWM)‏ هي تقنية تسمح بالتحكّم بقيمة تماثلية رقمياً (controlling an analog value digitally). بمعنى انه من الممكن استخدامها كـ مبدل رقمي تمثيلي (بالإنجليزية: digital to analog converter)‏ بشكل مختلف
  5. Instead, pulse modulation involves using quantized pulses to modulate a carrier signal or using a pulse train as the carrier signal for digital data (e.g., PAM4 signaling for high-speed networking). The primary difference between these two sets of digital modulation techniques is the use of a truly digital signal vs. the use of pulses in.
  6. Pulse code modulation is a method that is used to convert an analog signal into a digital signal so that a modified analog signal can be transmitted through the digital communication network. PCM is in binary form, so there will be only two possible states high and low (0 and 1)
  7. Pulse-code modulation is known as a digital pulse modulation techniques. The pulse-code modulation (PCM) is quite complex compared to the Analog pulse modulation techniques (i.e., PAM, PWM and PPM) in the sense that the message signal is subjected to a great number of operations

Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) is a digital technology that uses the amount of power delivered to a device that can be changed. It generates analogue signals by using a digital source. A PWM signal is basically a square wave which is switched between on and off state. The duty cycle and frequency of a PWM signal determine its behaviour In regular sampling process, however, the modulated square pulse is acceptable to vary with the message signal, however in pulse-amplitude modulation it is retained as flat signal. Types of Pulse Amplitude Modulation. Pam can be categorized into two categories. They are - Flattop Pulse Amplitude Modulation and Natural Pulse amplitude modulation Definition:-. In Pulse position modulation, the position of the pulsed carrier wave is varied according to the message signal (modulating signal). This image shows, the waveforms of modulating signal, pulsed carrier wave, pulse width modulated wave ( PWM) and pulse position modulated wave (PPM). Please note that, here we will obtain the pulse. Pulse width modulation makes use of a rectangular pulse wave of which the pulse width is modulated. This modulation of pulse width results in the variation of the average value of the waveform, where the average value is dependent on the duty cycle D. Duty cycle is the period in which the signal is on and is denoted as a percentage The position variations of the modulated pulse for the 1000-cycle modulation are shown in summarized form in the lower figure, which shows the various positions of the pulse at different times in the modulation cycle. A system of the type shown, having a frame period of 125 microseconds (i.e., repetition frequency of 8000 cycles), is capable of.

Pulse/ digital modulation MCQs/ Quizzes. January 16, 2021 December 19, 2020 by prince70386. 1. Pulse modulation is generally used in: (A) Data communication. (B) Radio navigation. (C) Automatic landing equipment's Pulse amplitude modulation 1. 3F4 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) Dr. I. J. Wassell 2. Introduction • The purpose of the modulator is to convert discrete amplitude serial symbols (bits in a binary system) ak to analogue output pulses which are sent over the channel Pulse Width Modulation Functionality and Applications Continued. Therefore, since power loss is a consequence of both voltage and current, this equates to a near-zero loss in power for PWM. Moreover, PWM is also ideally suited for digital controls as well. This is due to the nature of digital technology as a whole, i.e., 1's and 0's or On. period and hence the frequency is always fixed. Only the ON time and OFF time of the pulse (duty cycle) varies. By this technique, we can modulate the given voltage.The one difference between a square wave signal and PWM signal is that the square wave signal has same ON and OFF time (50% duty cycle), whereas a PWM signal has a variable duty cycle PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUES FOR INVERTERS Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree Bachelor of Technology In Electrical Engineering By AROKKIA JERALD PRAVEEN.D (11BEE0033) KIRAN.R (11BEE0168) Under the Guidance of Dr.Sreejith.S School of Electrical Engineering (SELECT) VIT UNIVERSITY (Estd. u/s 3 of UGC Act 1956.

PULSE-FREQUENCY MODULATION (pfm)

Pulse modulation definition: a type of modulation in which a train of pulses is used as the carrier wave , one or more... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and example Pulse amplitude modulation is a technique in which the amplitude of each pulse is controlled such that they are proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the message signal. Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) is obtained from the pure sine wave. Following are the types of sampling techniques for transmitting the signal using PAM PPM Modulation. As mentioned PPM is short form of Pulse Position Modulation in which relative position of pulse is proportional to amplitude of the modulating signal. It is similar to phase modulation (PM). Refer advantages and disadvantages of pulse modulation schemes such as PAM vs PWM vs PPM >> for more information

In PPM modulation technique the power required for transmitting individual pulses are constant, but synchronization of transmitter and receiver are required. There is a simple pulse modulation technique called Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) which is proved to be more power efficient than the PWM and consumes constant power for individual pulses Pulse-duration modulation. Another kind of pulse modulation is pulse-duration modulation (PDM), in which intelligence is represented by the length and order of regularly recurring pulses. A familiar example of PDM is the International Morse Code , used in ship-to-shore communications, amateur radio , and certain other forms of radiotelegraphy

تعديل عرض النبضة (Pulse-Width Modulation) - الصنّاع العر

1441A/B Signal Generator | RFiber Solution

Lab 8: Pulse Width Modulation. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a way of encoding a continuously variable signal into a binary signal. A PWM signal consists of a series of regularly timed pulses. The continuously variable signal, which we call the modulating signal, controls the width of the pulses in the PWM signal The Pulse Width Modulation is a technique in which the ON time or OFF time of a pulse is varied according to the amplitude of the modulating signal, keeping t. Fig. 1: Block Diagram of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) he (ON time + OFF time) time of the pulse as constant. The (ON time + OFF time) of a pulse is called 'Period' of the pulse, and.

What is Pulse Position Modulation? Definition, Basics

  1. Answer: Pulse-code modulation. 10. In order to reduce quantizing noise, one must. increase the number of standard amplitudes. send pulses whose sides are more nearly vertical. use an R.F. amplifier in the receiver. increase the number of samples per second. Answer: increase the number of standard amplitudes. 11
  2. Effective pulse shaping does this while controlling the inter-symbol interference that is added in the process. The graphic below demonstrates this for a 16QAM waveform where the real portion of the time domain waveform is shown in the upper part of the graphic with and without pulse shaping. The lower part of the graphic shows comparative.
  3. pulse-position modulation is converted to pulse-duration modulation for decoding.t The problem investigated here may be classed under the general heading of the analysis of waves derived by sampling a signal wave at discrete intervals. This gen- eral problem exists in one form or another in all pulse.
  4. A Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) peripheral is used to generate a digital signal with a user-defined period and duty cycle (ON time) that can be used to encode a message or control the amount of power supplied to electrical devices. This type of signal can be used in a variety of applications such as motor control, LED lighting and power.
  5. This better method is the pulse density modulation (PDM) . As I mentioned in the last article, the PWM is a method where a pulse width is varied for a fixed PWM frequency to attain an analog output ranging from 0 to 100 percent. In the PDM case, we keep the pulse width fixed and vary, in time, the number of pulses sent out by the controller

Pulse Code Modulation. 1,098 likes. Black Sun EP - Feb 2018 Plague - CD Jan 2014 Heilige Tod - Heilige Leben 10 March 2014 Bardo - Thödol August 2014 Ewige - Welle August 201 Short Questions and Answers Sampling Theory and Pulse Analog Modulation Q.1. What is pulse position modulation (PPM)? Ans. In PPM, the position of a pulse relative to its unmodulated time of occurrence is varied in accordance with the message signal. Q.2. What is Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)? Ans. The process in which amplitudes of regularly spaced rectangular pulses vary with the. if the first input of the multiport is 1, the second vector (-2V) is applied (not -V unlike what you believe). and so on. the sequence is indeed (-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3) Muhammed Fasil. asked a question.

Pulse Code Modulation • By quantizing the PAM pulse, original signal is only approximated • Leads to quantizing noise • Signal-to-noise ratio for quantizing noise • Thus, each additional bit increases SNR by 6 dB, or a factor of 4 SNR dB = 20log2n +1.76 dB= 6.02n+1.76 dB. Pulse modulation is no longer just theory — it is a reality. Young as it is, pulse modulation is the giant behind the front-page news of space exploration. As we explore the frontiers of outer space, and as we search for ways to improve and increase the information-handling capacity of our existing communications systems, it becomes. Pulse width modulation uses transistors which switch the DC voltage on and off in a defined sequence to produce the AC output voltage and frequency. Most VFD's today utilize insulated gate bipolar transistors or IGBT's. The typical configuration of the IGBT's in the inverter section of a VFD is shown below in figure 2 27,135. Nov 14, 2019. #5. You could use an AND gate with one input being the clock signal, and the other input being the modulating signal. When the modulating signal is high the pulses pass and when the modulating signal is low, they don't. You can use a PWL table with the voltage source to generate an arbitrary modulating signal, if desired

250+ TOP MCQs on Pulse Modulation and Answers. Avionics Multiple Choice Questions on Pulse Modulation. 1. The process of using a pulse signal to represent information is called _______. Clarification: In pulse modulation, the information to be transmitted is represented by a series of binary pulses Klystron RF units for high energy physics to smaller magnetron pulse modulators and e-gun modulators for radiation therapy as well as pulse generators for PEF solutions - this gives you an understanding of the full scope. ScandiNova has the ability to deliver a pure high voltage pulse modulator all the way to a turn-key RF power unit, including complete low level RF, diagnostics and.

What is Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)? Definition, Basics

Pulse Width Modulation or PWM for short is a technique for mimicking analog signals using digital output. How does this work? Using a pulse train whose relation D (duty cycle) between time at high level (digital 1, usually 5V) and time at low level (digital 0, 0V) in each period can be modified to produce an average voltage between these two. The main units in a pulse code modulator are. 2. In a PCM system, a five bit-encoder is used. If the difference between two consecutive levels is 1V, then the range of the encoder is. 3. If the number of bits per sample in a PCM system is increased from 8 to 16, then the bandwidth will be increased. 4

Types of Pulse Modulation - Electronics and Communication

Pulse Code Modulation is a technique used to convert the PAM samples to a binary weighted code for digital transmission. PCM coding is a two step process performed by the CODEC. The first step is quantization, where each sample is assigned a specific quantizing interval. The second step is PCM coding of the quantizing interval into an 8-bit PCM. What is PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)? PWM stands for Pulse Width Modulation; we will get into the reason for such a name later. But, for now understand PWM as a type of signal which can be produced from a digital IC such as microcontroller or 555 timer.The signal thus produced will have a train of pulses and these pulses will be in form of a square wave Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a method used for controlling an analogue signal using a digital source. The output voltage of the converter is controlled by modulating the width of the pulse. A lot of power electronic circuits are controlled by PWM signals of various forms. How does PWM work? A PWM signal consists of a duty cycle and a frequency Introduction to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Posted: Sat, 2001-09-01 00:00 - Michael Barr. Pulse width modulation (PWM) is a powerful technique for controlling analog circuits with a processor's digital outputs. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion

Re: S2719DGF, Unsupported audio format, set to pulse code modulation PCM. * Based on the other Nvidia thread, the issue is with how the video card audio is communicating with the monitor audio via HDMI. Could there be a similar audio setting in the AMD Catalyst Control Center. Maybe something in their AMD Audio Configuration and Setup FAQ will. Fig. 4.6.1 Pulse Width Modulation with Astable & Monostable. In the 555 astable examples shown in Oscillator Module 4.4, the control input (pin5) of the 555 was shown to be useful in controlling the duty cycle of the output. However its action also varied the frequency of the astable. This interdependence can be eliminated by using two 555. In this circuit, the DC motor is operated by a 555 integrated circuit. The IC 555 in this circuit is being operated in astable mode, which produces a continuous HIGH and LOW pulses. In this mode, the 555 IC can be used as a pulse width modulator with a few small adjustments to the circuit. The frequency of operation of the circuit is provided. In pulse position modulation, the amplitude and width of the pulses are kept constant, while the position of each pulse with reference to position of reference pulse, is changed according to the instantaneous sampled value of the modulating signal. Below shown circuit diagram is the simplest pulse position modulation circuit using IC-555 Pulse code modulation is the most frequently used analogue-to-digital conversion technique, and is defined in the ITU-T G.711 specification. The main parts of a conversion system are the encoder (the analogue-to-digital converter) and the decoder (the digital-to-analogue converter). The combined encoder/decoder is known as a codec

Pulse Modulation Techniques PAM, PWM, PC

Pulse modulation which has several forms, is a purely digital placement or duty cycle of pulses that go from ground to Vcc. analog modulation changes the shape of an analog signal . the simplest example is the AM radio. a basic carrier sine signal.. The pulses used in pulse modulation are mainly square or bell-shaped and have a duration of 10 −9 to 10 −5 sec. The off-on time ratio (the ratio of the repetition period and the duration of a pulse) ranges from 10 2 to 10 3 for radar to several units for multichannel radio communications. Pulse modulation is usually achieved by means of. One widely used approach is pulse-width modulation (PWM), which controls the power switch output power by varying its ON and OFF times. The ratio of ON time to the switching period time is the.

311 pulse modulation

Pulse Amplitude Modulation: Definition, Application

In some applications, throttling of the manipulated flows is difficult or impossible. In the biochemical industry, where precise (good resolution and sensitivity) throttling valves without any crevices (to meet sanitary requirements) are rather limited (there are exceptions such as the Fisher Baumann 83000-89000 series). Often, pulse width modulation (PWM) is used to turn nutrient and reagent. Define pulse modulation. pulse modulation synonyms, pulse modulation pronunciation, pulse modulation translation, English dictionary definition of pulse modulation. n. A system of modulation in which pulses are altered and controlled in order to represent the message to be communicated Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a useful option for voltage variation. Discover how it works and the range of applications that it can be used in. Join ArrowPerks & Earn 500 Bonus Points on Your First $300+ Order. Join ArrowPerks & Earn 500 Bonus Points on Your First $300+ Order Pulse Width Modulation, or PWM, is a digital technique to enable the proportional control of analog devices more efficiently. It generates variable-width pulses to represent the amplitude of an analog input signal. The output switching transistor is on more of the time for a high-amplitude signal and off more of the time for a low-amplitude signal

Explain pulse-code modulation, Electrical Engineering

Video: Pulse modulation - SlideShar

PAL video timing specificationPULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION TRAINER - YouTubepulse modulation

4. Space Vector Modulation Space Vector Modulation (SVM) was originally developed as vector approach to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) for three phase inverters. It is a more sophisticated technique for generating sine wave that provides a higher voltage to the motor with lower total harmonic distortion. The main aim of an We present and investigate a method of chaotic pulse-time modulation (PTM) named chaotic pulse-width-position modulation (CPWPM) which is the combination of pulse-position-modulation (PPM) and pulse-width modulation (PWM) with the inclusion of chaos technique for digital communications. CPWPM signal is in the pulse train format, in which binary information is modulated onto chaotically-varied. A class D amplifier uses pulse modulation, where a sequence of pulses are generated, at a much higher frequency than the input signal, which when low-pass filtered recreate the input signal. Usually pulse width modulation (PWM) is used. The output stage consists of switching transistors

  • يامي غوتام انستقرام.
  • سيارات مستعملة السوق المفتوح.
  • البحث عن اصدقاء على الواتس اب.
  • برنامج تصوير الشاشة ويندوز 7.
  • مطارة ماء.
  • بيع قطع غيار السيارات المستعملة في عمان.
  • هل حبوب منع الحمل تخفي آثار الحشيش.
  • ما أهمية القفص الصدري.
  • طريقة عمل العود المعطر الملكي.
  • أسعار تذاكر ماليزيا طيران الإمارات.
  • محل فقاعة صابون.
  • رموز تدل على الزواج من رجل غني.
  • سبوت لايت للجبس.
  • الآلات الموسيقية الشرقية.
  • جون هام.
  • RICOH firmware.
  • تحميل انستقرام عربي.
  • هل حوض السمك يقطع الرزق.
  • فطيرة التفاح الهشة.
  • سعر هوندا CRV في مصر.
  • زيت السمسم للعلاقه الزوجية.
  • برنامج كاريوكي.
  • رونالدينهو 2019.
  • موقع تحسين الصور القديمة.
  • أكثر الفنون القتالية فعالية.
  • AHA login.
  • متى يشرب الصمغ العربي.
  • السحابة الخارقة.
  • Giardia lamblia morphology.
  • سعر عملية الليزك 2020.
  • Omiz plus سعر.
  • حاسبة الماء وزارة الصحة.
  • هدى حسين وابنتها روان.
  • Nodular scleritis.
  • عصيان مدني بالانجليزي.
  • مسابقات عن الصلاة للاطفال.
  • نيوم الآن.
  • كرتون اطفال عربي.
  • تارت الفراولة سالي فؤاد.
  • مرسيدس 2014.
  • عبارات تكريم المتقاعدين.